Biology 9 - Biodiversity Question Answers

Grade 9 Biology Punjab Text Book 2020 Notes for the students of the ninth class. Learn these notes and enhance your grade in final exams.

Biology 9 - Biodiversity Question Answers

CHAPTER 3 BIODIVERSITY

Short and long Questions:

Q#1: Describe the five-principal group of organisms?

Ans: The five principal groups of organisms are prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

Q#2: Relate the importance of Biodivertry with natural ecosystems through examples?

Ans: See Q#1 from exercise (Understanding the concept).

Q#3: How arranging a group of organisms is arranged in an evolutionary tree?

Ans: Evolutionary tree:

Since 1960's trend has emerged. arranging groups of organisms in an evolutionary tree. If a group includes all the descendants of the same ancestral from it is called monophyletic. Other groups are called polyphyletic.

Q#4: Explain the aims and principles of classification, keeping in view its historical background?

Ans: See Q#2 from exercise (understanding the concept).

Q#5: Describe the three kingdoms and five ranks used by Carolus Linnaeus?

Ans: Carolus Linnaeus(1707-1778) divided nature into three kingdoms mineral. Vegetable and animals, Linnaeus used five ranks: Class Order Genus, Species, and variety. Linnaeus Is the best to know for the introduction of his method still used to formulate the scientific names of every species.

Q#6: State the taxonomic hierarchy. Explain how each kingdom is divided into smaller groups?

Ans: taxonomic hierarchy:

The groups into which organisms are classified are known as taxonomic categories or taxa{Singlur "taxon"} and these taxa from a ladder called taxonomic hierarchy. All the organisms are divided into five kingdoms:

The base for Establishing five kingdoms:

  • Phylum {division: for plants and fungi
  • Class: A class is a group of related orders.
  • Order: A order is a group of related families.
  • Family: A family is a group of related genera.
  • Genus: A genus is a group of related species
  • Species: A species consists of similar organisms.

Note: Each category {taxon} is more than one below it and has emergent properties. MEmber of its lower taxon resembles and another more than do the member of a higher taxon.

Q#7: Illustrate the usual classification of live species:

  • THE fruity fly so familiar in genetic laboratories( Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Humans (Homo sapiens)
  • The peas used by Gregor Mendel in his discovery of genetic(Pisum sativum)
  • The Mushroom (Amanita muscaria)
  • The bacterium (Escherichia coll)

Ans:

Q#8: Explain the base of establishing five kingdoms of living organisms?

Ans: See Q#3 from exercise (understanding the conspectus).

Q#9: Define species?

Ans: Species- The basic unit of classification:

Species are the basic unit of classification," A species is a group of organisms Which can be interbred freely among them and produce fertile offspring but are reproductively isolated from all other such groups in nature ".Each possesses its own distinct structural, ecological and behavioral characteristics.

Q#10: How mule is produced?

Ans: Mule is produced through an unnatural cross between a male donkey and a female horse.

Q#11 Describe the history of the classification system?

Ans: History of the classification system:

Greek period:

The earliest known system of classification of organisms comes from the Greek philosopher Aristotle who classified all living organisms known at that  time as either in the group" plants or in animals"

Muslim period:

In 700's Abu-Usman Umer Aljahiz described the characteristics of 350 species of animals ni his book. He wrote a lot about the life of ants. in 1172 ibn e Rushd (Averroes). Who was a judge (Qazi) in Seville? translated and abridged Aristotle's " de Anima (on the soul)" into Arabic. His original Commentary is now lost . but its translation into Latin is available.

Modern period"

  1. An Italian Botanist Andrea Caesalpinia {1519-1603} proposed the first methodical arrangement of paints. He divided plants into 15 groups called"genero"
  2. An English Naturalist John Ray (1627-1705) published important works on plants' classification.
  3. Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (1652- 1723: german Botanist) and pitton de Tournefort{1656-1708: French Botanist} introduced the practice of naming the plants according to their genera.
  4. The category of order and Tournefort introduced even more Sophisticated categories of class, section, genus, and species
  5. Modem classification has its routes in the work of Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeus who grouped species according to ti similar physical characteristics.

Q#12: Describe the Two-Kingdom classification system and its drawback.

Ans: Two Kingdom classification system:

It is the oldest system and classifies all organisms into two kingdoms i.e. Plantae and Animalia. According to it. all organisms  that can prepare food from simple inorganic materials and thus can store energy.the organisms that cannot synthesize their food and depend on autotrophs or others are heterotrophs and are includes in kingdom Animalia. According to this system, bacteria, fungi and Algae were included in kingdom plantae.

Drawbacks of the two-kingdom classification system:

Some taxonomists found the system unworkable because: many unicellular organisms like Euglena have both plant-like{presence of chlorophyll} and Animal-like {heterotrophic made of nutrition in darkness and lack of cell wall} characters so there should be a separate kingdom for such organisms. This system also ignores the difference between organisms having prokaryotic and those having Eukaryotic cells.

Q#13 Describe the three kingdom classification system and its drawback.

Ans: Three-kingdom classification system:

in 1866, Emst Hocket solved the first objection and proposed a third kingdom: Potisto to accommodate Euglena like organisms. He also bacteria in the kingdom Protista. In this system, Fungi were still included in the kingdom Plantae.

This system didn't clear the difference between prokaryotic and Eukaryotes. Some biologists disagreed about the position of Fungi in the kingdom Plantae. Fungi resemble plants in many ways but aren't  Autotrophs. They are special forms of Heterotrophs that get their food by absorption. They do not have cellulose in their cell walls rather process chitin.

Q#14: Describe the general characteristics of the five kingdoms?

Ans: THe five-kingdom:

The general characteristics of the five-kingdom are as follows:

  1. Kingdom manera:
  2. it includes prokaryotic organisms i.e. they are made of prokaryotic cells.
  3. monerans are unicellular, although some types form chains, clusters, or colonies of cells.
  4. Prokaryotic cells are radically different from eukaryotic cells.
  5. Most are Heterotrophic but some perform photosynthesis because they have chlorophyll in their cytoplasm.
  6. Within this kingdom, there are two vastly different kinds of organisms i.e Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. Many biologists believe that these two groups should be considered a separate kingdom.

Kingdom Protista:

If include Fukaryotic unicellular and multicellular organisms. There are three main types of ports:

  1. Algae are unicellular, colonial, or sometimes simple multicellular. They resemble plant cells with cell walls and chlorophyll in chloroplasts. Simple multicellular means that they do not have multicellular sex organs and do not form embryos during their life cycles.
  2. Protozoans resemble animals whose cells lack chlorophyll and cell walls.
  3. Some protists are like the fungi

 

Kindom Fungi:

 

If includes Eukaryotic multicellular reduce for example mushrooms. fungi are heterotrophic organisms that are absorptive in their nutritional mode. Most fungi are decomposed. They live on organic material. Secrete digestive enzymes and absorb small organic molecules formed by the digestion enzymes.

Kingdom Plantae:

It includes Eukaryotic multicellular Autotrophs. Plants are autotrophic in nutritional mode. Making their own food by photosynthesis they have multicellular sex organs and form embryos during life cycles. Moses, Ferms, and flowering plants are included in this kingdom.

Kingdom Animalia:

If includes Eukaryotic multicellular consumes. Animals live mostly by ingesting food and ingesting food and digesting it within specialized cavities. Tey lock cell walls and show movement.

Note:

 A BIologist believes that the kingdom Protista evolved from Monera and then It gave rise to the other three Eukaryotic kingdoms i.e. Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

Q#15: How can you divide the five kingdoms info two groups on the basis of types of cells?

Ans:  a . Kingdom Monera includes organisms with prokaryotic cells and

  1. Kingdom Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia includes organisms with Eukaryotic cells.

Q#16 Justify why virus are excluded from the five-kingdom classification

Ans: See Q#4 from exercise (understand Who suggesting the concepts).

Q#17: Who suggested the terms of,"Procariotique" and "Eukariotique"?

Ans: In 1937, E-chatton suggested the terms of,"Procariotique" to describe bacteriaand Eukariotique" to describe animal and plant cells.

Q#18: Describe the modification of the five Kingdom classification of whittaker?

Ans: Modifaction of the five kingdom classification:

1988 Margulis and Schwartz modified the five kingdom classification of whittoker. THey considerd genestic along with cellular organization and mode of nutirition in classification. They classified the organisms into the some five kingdom as proposed by Whittoker

Q#19: Describe the function of prions and viroids?

Ans:

Prions:

Prions are composed of protien onlu and act as infectious particles in plants.

Viroids

Viroids are compossed of circular RNA only and act as infectious particles and cause diseases in certain plants.

Q#20: Describe the alms and principals of Binomial Nomenclature?

Ans: See Q#5: from exercise (understanding the concepts)

Q#21: Describe the Disfinguishing characteristics of the five kingdoms of life?

Ans: disfinguishing characteristics of the five kingdomms of life:

Q#22: Why the Orchid tree (Mountain-Ebony) was named as Bauhinia Variegata?

Ans: Sometimes organisms are named in honour of the research  worker who describe the classified them. For example, The Orchid tree (Mountain-Ebony) was named as Bauhinia variegata after the swiss batanistsbauhin.Bauhinia Variegatavis an omamental tree found in south Eastem Asia.

Q#23:   How bacterium Esherichia coll is observated often?

Ans: In rare cases this observation form has spread to more general use for example the bacterium Esherichia coll is often  Referred to as E. coll.

 

Q#24: Why a species is called extinict and threatened?

Ans: Extinct:

A species is celled extinict when there is no doubt that the last individual of that species has died.

Threatened:

A species is called threatened when it is at risk of extinction in near further. THe threatened species may be;

  1. Vulnerable: Likely to become Endangered unless the circumstances improve.
  2. Endangered: At risk of becoming extinict beacuse few members are left.
  • Critically endangered: At extermely high risk of becoming extinct

Plant and animal species have gone extinct in pakistan:

Many plants and animals species are lion, Tiger, Asiatic, Cheetah, indion one homed Rhincoceros, Swamp deer , Indian wild ass, Hangul, Black  Buck etc.

Q#25: Explain the impact of human beings on biodivertry?

Ans: See Q#6 from exercise (Understanding the concepts).

Q#26What is meant by Deforestation?

Ans: Deforestation:

Deforestation means cutting down of trees for the conversion of a forest to non-forest land. It is done for using the land for various purposes such as pasture.urban use etc. The destruction of significent areas of forest has resulted in a degraded Envoirment with reduce biodiversity.

Q#27Identity causes of deforestation and its effect on biodivertry?

Ans: See Q#7 from exercise (underctandig the concepts.

Q#28: Do you know?

Ans: More then 260000 people are to the world population each day, or more then 180 each minute!

Q#29: Name the animals to which the northem areas provide habitals?

Ans: The northem areas provide habitates to musk, dear, snow,leopard,Astore,Makhor and Himalayan ibex. Woolly flying squirrel and the brown Bear.

Q#30: Describe some the programs going in pakistan for conservation of biodiversity?

Ans: See Q#28 from exercise (understanding the concept).

Q#31: How many migatory birds passing through chitral are killed during migration?

Ans: It is estimated that 200000 of one million migatory birds passing through chitral are killed during migration.

Q#32: Briefly describe Endangered species in pakistan?

Ans: Endangered Species in pakistan:

Here are a few Example of endangered species in Pkaistan:

Indus Dolphin:

Indus Dpolhin is a fresh water river memal.According to wwf-p only600 animals of this species are left today in this indus river in pakistan. The populationof the species declined beacuse of various factors,including water pollution poaching and destruction of habitates due to bridges and dams etc. WWF-P has stored the indus Dolphin rescue opreation. indus dolphin has a long beak round belly, very small dorsal fin and large flipper. Although its eyes do not have lense {that is why it is also called the "Blind dolphin"} the dolphin blind used its eyes to differentitate between light and dark. It relies on echolacation (sound Sensin the bottom or) to finds its prey . After Every 30-60 secs its needs to breathe. It comes to the surface, takes in the air and swims back to the water.

Marco plo sheep:

MArco polo sheep are scatteredin karakarum mountain range and Hindukish. in pakistan They are mostly found in the Khunjerb national parks and adjoining areas. THE SHEEP have an endangered atatus and their numbers have been rapidhy decreasing in the last two decades. WWF-P has started project for its conversion and identification for addictional sites where Marco polo sheep occurs.

Houbara Bustard:

It is a large bird (about 60cm long with 140 cm wing spant) it is omnivorous and eats seeds, insects and smal animals. Houbara Bustard are migratory birds that fly to pakistan in winter season from farmer soviet territory. Large number of these birds settles down for the season in Cholistan and thor desserts. THese is decline in the number of Houbara Bustards and it is and Endongered Birds in the thar area. If is hunted by the foreigners and this birds is popular among the Arabs.Now the Government of pakistan allows inly limited hunting by 1975.this birds was decelareed an endangered species in pakistan . THe decline in its population is not only a result of hunting but due to the destruction of its natural habitat.

Q#33: Write the name of the national animal of Pakistan?

ANs: Markhor

Q#34: Write the name of the national bird of Pakistan?

Ans: Chakor Patridge.